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A ‘One Health’ approach that targets people and animals

  • 4th May, 2021

(Mains GS 2 & 3: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources & Recent developments and their applications and effects in everyday life) 

Context:

  • On World Veterinary Day (April 24, 2021), discussion focused on acknowledging the interconnectedness of animals, humans, and the environment, an approach referred to as “One Health”.
  • The father of modern pathology, Rudolf Virchow, emphasised in 1856 that there are essentially no dividing lines between animal and human medicine.
  •  This concept is ever more salient as the world continues to grapple with the COVID-19 pandemic. 

Across the species barrier

  • Studies indicate that more than two-thirds of existing and emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic which can be transferred between animals and humans and vice versa.
  • Another category of diseases, “anthropozoonotic” infections, gets transferred from humans to animals. 
  • The transboundary impact of viral outbreaks in recent years such as the Nipah virus, Ebola, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Avian Influenza has further reinforced the need for us to consistently document the linkages between the environment, animals, and human health.

India as part of global framework:

  • India’s ‘One Health’ vision derives its blueprint from the agreement between the tripartite-plus alliance .
  • This alliance comprises the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
  • This  global initiative is supported by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Bank under the overarching goal of contributing to ‘One World, One Health’. 

India’s plan:

  • In keeping with the long-term objectives, India established a National Standing Committee on Zoonoses as far back as the 1980s. 
  • And in 2021 funds were sanctioned for setting up a ‘Centre for One Health’ at Nagpur. 
  • Further, the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying (DAHD) has launched several schemes to mitigate the prevalence of animal diseases since 2015
  • Hence, under the National Animal Disease Control Programme, ₹13,343 crore have been sanctioned for Foot and Mouth disease and Brucellosis control. 
  • In addition, DAHD will soon establish a ‘One Health’ unit within the Ministry. 

Revamp  animal health system: 

  • Additionally, the government is working to revamp programmes that focus on capacity building for veterinarians and upgrading the animal health diagnostic system such as Assistance to States for Control of Animal Diseases (ASCAD). 
  • In the revised component of assistance to States/Union Territories, there is increased focus on vaccination against livestock diseases and backyard poultry. 
  • To this end, assistance will be extended to State biological production units and disease diagnostic laboratories. 

Rabies and its elimination plan:

  • WHO estimates that rabies (also a zoonotic disease) costs the global economy approximately $6 billion annually. 
  • Considering that 97% of human rabies cases in India are attributed to dogs, interventions for disease management in dogs are considered crucial.
  • DAHD has partnered with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in the National Action Plan for Eliminating Dog Mediated Rabies. 
  • This initiative is geared towards sustained mass dog vaccinations and public education to render the country free of rabies.

Need for coordination

  • Scientists have observed that there are more than 1.7 million viruses circulating in wildlife and many of them are likely to be zoonotic thus India facing risks of many more pandemics in times to come. 
  • To achieve targets under the ‘One Health’ vision, efforts are ongoing to address challenges pertaining to veterinary manpower shortages, the lack of information sharing between human and animal health institutions, and inadequate coordination on food safety at slaughter, distribution, and retail facilities. 

The way ahead:

  • These issues can be remedied by consolidating existing animal health and disease surveillance systems — e.g., the Information Network for Animal Productivity and Health, and the National Animal Disease Reporting System 
  • Country need to developing best-practice guidelines for informal market and slaughterhouse operation (e.g., inspections, disease prevalence assessments), 
  • Government needs to focus on creating mechanisms to operationalise ‘One Health’ at every stage down to the village level. 

Conclusion:

  • Thus as the country battles yet another wave of a deadly zoonotic disease (COVID-19), awareness generation, and increased investments toward meeting ‘One Health’ targets is the need of the hour. 
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